Penetration Testing Methodologies and Frameworks
Penetration tests can deliver widely different results depending on which standards and methodologies they leverage. Updated penetration testing standards and methodologies provide a viable option for companies who need to secure their systems and fix their cybersecurity vulnerabilities.
Understanding the purpose, intent, and assurance delivered by each of the prevalent penetration testing methodologies will help a company achieve the desired return on their investment. A brief description of the five most common penetration testing methodologies follows:
The OSSTMM framework, one of the most recognized standards in the industry, provides a scientific methodology for network penetration testing and vulnerability assessment. This framework contains a comprehensive guide for testers to identify security vulnerabilities within a network (and its components) from various potential angles of attack. This methodology relies on the tester’s in-depth knowledge and experience, as well as human intelligence to interpret the identified vulnerabilities and their potential impact within the network.
Unlike most security manuals, this framework was also created to support network development teams. Most developers and IT teams base their firewalls and networks on this manual and the guidelines it provides. While this manual does not advocate for any specific network protocol or software, it highlights the best practices and the steps that should be taken to ensure the security of your networks.
The OSSTMM methodology allows testers to customize their assessment to fit the specific needs or the technological context of the organization being assessed. With this set of standards, provides an accurate overview of an organization's cybersecurity, as well as reliable solutions adapted to the their unique technological context to help stakeholders make the right decisions to secure your networks.
For all matters of application security, the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) is the most recognized standard in the industry. This methodology, powered by a very well-versed community that stays on top of the latest technologies, has helped countless organizations to curb application vulnerabilities.
This framework provides a methodology for application penetration testing that can not only identify vulnerabilities commonly found within web and mobile applications but also complicated logic flaws that stem from unsafe development practices. The updated guide provides comprehensive guidelines for each penetration testing method, with over 66 controls to assess in total, allowing testers to identify vulnerabilities within a wide variety of functionalities found in modern applications today.
With the help of this methodology, organizations are better equipped to secure their applications – web and mobile alike – from common mistakes that can have a potentially critical impact an organization. Companies looking to develop new web and mobile applications should also consider incorporating these standards during their development phase to avoid introducing common security flaws.
During an application security assessment, you should expect the OWASP standard to be leveraged to ensure that no vulnerabilities have been left behind and that your organization obtains realistic recommendations adapted to the specific features and technologies used in your applications.
Unlike other information security manuals, NIST offers more specific guidelines for penetration testers to follow. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides a manual that is best suited to improve the overall Cybersecurity of an organization. The most recent version, 1.1, places more emphasis on the Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity. Complying with the NIST framework is often a regulatory requirement for various American providers and business partners.
With this framework, NIST set its sight on guaranteeing information security in different industries, including banking, communications, and energy. Large and small firms alike can tailor the standards to meet their specific needs.
In order to meet the standards that NIST has set, companies must perform penetration tests on their applications and networks following a pre-established set of guidelines. This American information tech security standard ensures that companies fulfill their cybersecurity control and assessment obligations, mitigating risks of a cyberattack in every way possible.
Stakeholders from different sectors collaborate to popularize and encourage firms to implement the Cybersecurity Framework. With exceptional standards and technology, NIST significantly contributes to cybersecurity innovation in a host of American industries.
The PTES Framework (Penetration Testing Methodologies and Standards) highlights the most recommended approach to structure a penetration test. This standard guides testers on various steps of a penetration test including initial communication, gathering information, as well as the threat modeling phases.
Following this penetration testing standard, testers acquaint themselves with the organization and their technological context as much as possible before they focus on exploiting the potentially vulnerable areas, allowing them to identify the most advanced scenarios of attacks that could be attempted. The testers are also provided with guidelines to perform post-exploitation testing if necessary, allowing them to validate that the previously identified vulnerabilities have been successfully fixed. The seven phases provided in this standard guarantee a successful penetration test offering practical recommendations that your management team can rely on to make their decisions.
The ISSAF standard (Information System Security Assessment Framework) contains an even more structured and specialized approach to penetration testing than the previous standard. If your organization’s unique situation requires an advanced methodology entirely personalized to its context, then this manual should prove useful for the specialists in charge of your penetration test.
These sets of standards enable a tester to meticulously plan and document every step of the penetration testing procedure, from planning, assessment, to reporting and destroying artifacts. This standard caters for all steps of the process. Pen testers who use a combination of different tools find ISSAF especially crucial as they can tie each step to a particular tool.
The assessment section, which is more detailed, governs a considerable part of the procedure. For each vulnerable area of your system, ISSAF offers some complementary information, various vectors of attack, as well as possible results when a vulnerability is exploited. In some instances, testers may also find information on tools that real attackers commonly use to target these areas. All this information proves worthwhile to plan and carry out particularly advanced attack scenarios, which guarantees a great return on investment for a company looking to secure their systems from cyberattacks.